1. Bjelle, A. & Eronen, I. The in vitro effect of six NSAIDs on the glycosaminoglycan metabolism of rabbit chondrocytes. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 9, 369–374 (1991).
2. Dekel, S., Falconer, J. & Francis, M. J. The effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on glycosaminoglycan sulphation in pig cartilage. Prostaglandins Med. 4, 133–140 (1980).
3. Prasad, S. & Aggarwal, B. B. Turmeric, the Golden Spice: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine. in Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects (eds. Benzie, I. F. F. & Wachtel-Galor, S.) (CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, 2012).
4. Yue, G. G. L. et al. The role of turmerones on curcumin transportation and P-glycoprotein activities in intestinal Caco-2 cells. J. Med. Food 15, 242–252 (2012).
5. Siddiqui, M. Z. Boswellia serrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 73, 255–261 (2011).
6. Alluri, V. K., Kundimi, S., Sengupta, K., Golakoti, T. & Kilari, E. K. An Anti-Inflammatory Composition of Boswellia serrata Resin Extracts Alleviates Pain and Protects Cartilage in Monoiodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2020, 7381625 (2020).
7. Noguchi, K. & Okubo, M. Leukotrienes in nociceptive pathway and neuropathic/inflammatory pain. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 34, 1163–1169 (2011).
8. Cury, Y., Picolo, G., Gutierrez, V. P. & Ferreira, S. H. Pain and analgesia: The dual effect of nitric oxide in the nociceptive system. Nitric Oxide 25, 243–254 (2011).
9. Haroyan, A. et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin and its combination with boswellic acid in osteoarthritis: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 18, 7 (2018).
10. Kulkarni, R. R., Patki, P. S., Jog, V. P., Gandage, S. G. & Patwardhan, B. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 33, 91–95 (1991).
11. Shen, C.-L. et al. Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis. J. Nutr. Biochem. 23, 1367–1377 (2012).
12. Hosseinzadeh, A. et al. Protective Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extract against Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Apoptosis Induced by Interleukin-1β in Cultured Chondrocytes. Cells Tissues Organs 204, 241–250 (2017).
13. Tanvir, E. M. et al. Antioxidant Properties of Popular Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Varieties from Bangladesh. J. Food Qual. 2017, (2017).
14. Mashhadi, N. S. et al. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence. Int. J. Prev. Med. 4, S36–42 (2013).
15. Beghelli, D. et al. Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Immune System Regulatory Properties of Boswellia serrata Extracts. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2017, 7468064 (2017).
16. Ahmed, R. S., Seth, V. & Banerjee, B. D. Influence of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinales Rosc) on antioxidant defense system in rat: comparison with ascorbic acid. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 38, 604–606 (2000).
17. Rainey, N. E., Moustapha, A. & Petit, P. X. Curcumin, a Multifaceted Hormetic Agent, Mediates an Intricate Crosstalk between Mitochondrial Turnover, Autophagy, and Apoptosis. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2020, 3656419 (2020).
18. Hung, J.-Y. et al. 6-Shogaol, an active constituent of dietary ginger, induces autophagy by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 9809–9816 (2009).
19. Sui, B.-D. et al. Understanding the role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. Postgrad. Med. J. 89, 709–714 (2013).
20. Soto-Urquieta, M. G. et al. Curcumin restores mitochondrial functions and decreases lipid peroxidation in liver and kidneys of diabetic db/db mice. Biol. Res. 47, 74 (2014).
21. Deng, X. et al. Promotion of Mitochondrial Biogenesis via Activation of AMPK-PGC1ɑ Signaling Pathway by Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extract, and Its Major Active Component 6-Gingerol. J. Food Sci. 84, 2101–2111 (2019).
22. Prasad, S. & Tyagi, A. K. Ginger and its constituents: role in prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 2015, 142979 (2015).
23. Santos-Parker, J. R. et al. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Aging 9, 187–208 (2017).
24. Hudson, N., Balsitis, M., Everitt, S. & Hawkey, C. J. Enhanced gastric mucosal leukotriene B4 synthesis in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Gut 34, 742–747 (1993).